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Extraction and ClarificationIn vitro denaturation and refolding

In vitro refolding aids

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Additive
typical concentration for use 
Chaotropic agents
guanidine-HCl
1 M
urea
4 M
L-arginine 0.5 M
Salts
ammonium sulphate
1 M
Sugars
sucrose

 
glucose
1 M
N-acetylglucosamine
1 M
Glycerol 10 - 50%
Sarcosine 1 - 4 M
Detergents and surfactants
Chaps
31 mM
Tween

SDS

N-lauroylsarcosine (Sarkosyl)
0.4%
dodecylmaltoside
2 mM
polyethylene glycol
10 - 100 mM  
octaethylene glycol monolauryl
10 mM - 10 mM  
phospholipids

Sulphobetaines
Non-detergent sulphobetaines (e.g. NDSB195) 1 - 4 M
Short chain alcohols
n-pentanol
1 - 10 mM
n-hexanol
10 mM - 10 mM  
cyclohexanol
1 mM - 10 mM