EMBL Heidelberg, Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany

Personal Assistant
Kirsi Heerde
Room: 209-212
Tel: +49 6221 387- 8201
Fax: +49 6221 387- 8211
E-mail: dg-office@embl.org
Assistant to the Director General / Head of Council Secretariat
Michael Thompson
Room: 209-212
Tel: +49 6221 387-8288
Fax: +49 6221 387-8211
E-mail: dg-office@embl.org

Biography

  • BA, 1986, University of Cambridge, UK.
    PhD 1990, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratory, London, UK.
    Postdoctoral researcher and CNRS scientist, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Group leader and Director of Genetics and Developmental Biology Unit, Institut Curie, Paris, France.
    Professor, Collège de France, since 2012.
    Director General, EMBL, since January 2019.
    Group leader, EMBL, since January 2019.

Publications

Total: 133 publication(s)

2019

Anikeeva P, Boyden E, Brangwynne C, Cissé II, Fiehn O, Fromme P, Gingras AC, Greene CS, Heard E, Hell SW, Hillman E, Jensen GJ, Karchin R, Kiessling LL, Kleinstiver BP, Kukura P, Knight R, Loman N, Lancaster MA, Lundberg E, Looger L, Miyawaki A, Luo Q, Nolan GP, Myers EW, Reik W, Picotti P, Shalek AK, Sauer M, Slavov N, Shendure J, van Valen D, Wang HW, Tanay A, Troyanskaya O, Zernicka-Goetz M, Zhuang X, Yi C, Yin P. (2019)

Voices in methods development.

Nat. Methods 16(10):945-951. doi: 10.1038/s41592-019-0585-6
Europe PMC | doi

Loda A, Heard E. (2019)

Xist RNA in action: past, present, and future.

PLoS Genet. 15(9) doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008333
Europe PMC | doi

Cavalli G, Heard E. (2019)

Advances in epigenetics link genetics to the environment and disease.

Nature 571(7766):489-499. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1411-0
Europe PMC | doi

van Bemmel JG, Galupa R, Gard C, Servant N, Picard C, Davies J, Szempruch AJ, Zhan Y, Żylicz JJ, Nora EP, Lameiras S, de Wit E, Gentien D, Baulande S, Giorgetti L, Guttman M, Hughes JR, Higgs DR, Gribnau J, Heard E. (2019)

The bipartite TAD organization of the X-inactivation center ensures opposing developmental regulation of Tsix and Xist.

Nat. Genet. 51(6):1024-1034. doi: 10.1038/s41588-019-0412-0
Europe PMC | doi

Pollex T, Heard E. (2019)

Nuclear positioning and pairing of X-chromosome inactivation centers are not primary determinants during initiation of random X-inactivation.

Nat. Genet. 51(2) doi: 10.1038/s41588-018-0305-7
Europe PMC | doi

Żylicz JJ, Bousard A, Žumer K, Dossin F, Mohammad E, da Rocha ST, Schwalb B, Syx L, Dingli F, Loew D, Cramer P, Heard E. (2019)

The implication of early chromatin changes in X chromosome inactivation.

Cell 176(1-2):182-197. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.11.041
Europe PMC | doi


2018

Galupa R, Heard E. (2018)

X-chromosome inactivation: a crossroads between chromosome architecture and gene regulation.

Annu. Rev. Genet. 52:535-566. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024611
Europe PMC | doi


2017

Borensztein M, Okamoto I, Syx L, Guilbaud G, Picard C, Ancelin K, Galupa R, Diabangouaya P, Servant N, Barillot E, Surani A, Saitou M, Chen CJ, Anastassiadis K1, Heard E. (2017)

Contribution of epigenetic landscapes and transcription factors to X-chromosome reactivation in the inner cell mass.

Nat Commun 8(1):1297. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-01415-5
Europe PMC | doi

Loda A, Brandsma JH, Vassilev I, Servant N, Loos F, Amirnasr A, Splinter E, Barillot E, Poot RA, Heard E, Gribnau J. (2017)

Genetic and epigenetic features direct differential efficiency of Xist-mediated silencing at X-chromosomal and autosomal locations.

Nat Commun 8(1) doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00528-1
Europe PMC | doi

Borensztein M, Syx L, Ancelin K, Diabangouaya P, Picard C, Liu T, Liang JB, Vassilev I, Galupa R, Servant N, Barillot E, Surani A, Chen CJ, Heard E. (2017)

Xist-dependent imprinted X inactivation and the early developmental consequences of its failure.

Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 24(3) doi: 10.1038/nsmb.3365
Europe PMC | doi

Vallot C, Patrat C, Collier AJ, Huret C, Casanova M, Liyakat Ali TM, Tosolini M, Frydman N, Heard E, Rugg-Gunn PJ, Rougeulle C. (2017)

XACT noncoding RNA competes with XIST in the control of X chromosome activity during human early development.

Cell Stem Cell 20(1):102-111. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.10.014
Europe PMC | doi


2016

Cooper S, Grijzenhout A, Underwood E, Ancelin K, Zhang T, Nesterova TB, Anil-Kirmizitas B, Bassett A, Kooistra SM, Agger K, Helin K, Heard E, Brockdorff N. (2016)

Jarid2 binds mono-ubiquitylated H2A lysine 119 to mediate crosstalk between Polycomb complexes PRC1 and PRC2.

Nat Commun 7 doi: 10.1038/ncomms13661
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E. (2016)

3D solutions to complex gene regulation.

Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 17(12) doi: 10.1038/nrm.2016.154
Europe PMC | doi

Shah RR, Cholewa-Waclaw J, Davies FCJ, Paton KM, Chaligne R, Heard E, Abbott CM, Bird AP. (2016)

Efficient and versatile CRISPR engineering of human neurons in culture to model neurological disorders.

Wellcome Open Res 1 doi: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.10011.1
Europe PMC | doi

Mulugeta E, Wassenaar E, Sleddens-Linkels E, van IJcken WF, Heard E, Grootegoed JA, Just W, Gribnau J, Baarends WM. (2016)

Genomes of Ellobius species provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian sex chromosomes.

Genome Res. 26(9):1202-10. doi: 10.1101/gr.201665.115
Europe PMC | doi

Giorgetti L, Heard E. (2016)

Closing the loop: 3C versus DNA FISH.

Genome Biol. 17(1) doi: 10.1186/s13059-016-1081-2
Europe PMC | doi

Gendrel AV, Marion-Poll L, Katoh K, Heard E. (2016)

Random monoallelic expression of genes on autosomes: Parallels with X-chromosome inactivation.

Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 56:100-110. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2016.04.007
Europe PMC | doi

Cantone I, Bagci H, Dormann D, Dharmalingam G, Nesterova T, Brockdorff N, Rougeulle C, Vallot C, Heard E, Chaligne R, Merkenschlager M, Fisher AG. (2016)

Ordered chromatin changes and human X chromosome reactivation by cell fusion-mediated pluripotent reprogramming.

Nat Commun 7 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12354
Europe PMC | doi

Corbel C, Heard E. (2016)

Transcriptional Analysis by Nascent RNA FISH of In Vivo Trophoblast Giant Cells or In Vitro Short-term Cultures of Ectoplacental Cone Explants.

J Vis Exp (114) doi: 10.3791/54386
Europe PMC | doi

Giorgetti L, Lajoie BR, Carter AC, Attia M, Zhan Y, Xu J, Chen CJ, Kaplan N, Chang HY, Heard E, Dekker J. (2016)

Structural organization of the inactive X chromosome in the mouse.

Nature 535(7613):575-9. doi: 10.1038/nature18589
Europe PMC | doi

Tiana G, Amitai A, Pollex T, Piolot T, Holcman D, Heard E, Giorgetti L. (2016)

Structural Fluctuations of the Chromatin Fiber within Topologically Associating Domains.

Biophys. J. 110(6):1234-45. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2016.02.003
Europe PMC | doi

Ancelin K, Syx L, Borensztein M, Ranisavljevic N, Vassilev I, Briseño-Roa L, Liu T, Metzger E, Servant N, Barillot E, Chen CJ, Schüle R, Heard E. (2016)

Maternal LSD1/KDM1A is an essential regulator of chromatin and transcription landscapes during zygotic genome activation.

Elife 5 doi: 10.7554/eLife.08851
Europe PMC | doi


2015

Giorgetti L, Piolot T, Heard E. (2015)

High-resolution 3D DNA FISH using plasmid probes and computational correction of optical aberrations to study chromatin structure at the sub-megabase scale.

Methods Mol. Biol. 1262:37-53. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2253-6_3
Europe PMC | doi

Dekker J, Heard E. (2015)

Structural and functional diversity of Topologically Associating Domains.

FEBS Lett. 589(20 Pt A):2877-84. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.044
Europe PMC | doi

Ciaudo C, Jay F, Okamoto I, Chen CJ, Sarazin A, Servant N, Barillot E, Heard E, Voinnet O. (2015)

Correction: RNAi-Dependent and Independent Control of LINE1 Accumulation and Mobility in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

PLoS Genet 11(5) doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005247
Europe PMC | doi

Chaligné R, Popova T, Mendoza-Parra MA, Saleem MA, Gentien D, Ban K, Piolot T, Leroy O, Mariani O, Gronemeyer H, Vincent-Salomon A, Stern MH, Heard E. (2015)

The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer.

Genome Res. 25(4):488-503. doi: 10.1101/gr.185926.114
Europe PMC | doi

Chu C, Zhang QC, da Rocha ST, Flynn RA, Bharadwaj M, Calabrese JM, Magnuson T, Heard E, Chang HY. (2015)

Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins.

Cell 161(2):404-16. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.025
Europe PMC | doi

Galupa R, Heard E. (2015)

X-chromosome inactivation: new insights into cis and trans regulation.

Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 31 doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2015.04.002
Europe PMC | doi


2014

Gendrel AV, Heard E. (2014)

Noncoding RNAs and epigenetic mechanisms during X-chromosome inactivation.

Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 30:561-80. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-101512-122415
Europe PMC | doi

Chaligne R, Heard E. (2014)

X-chromosome inactivation in development and cancer.

FEBS LETT 588(15):2514-2522. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2014.06.023
Europe PMC | doi

Chelmicki T, Dündar F, Turley MJ, Khanam T, Aktas T, Ramírez F, Gendrel AV, Wright PR, Videm P, Backofen R, Heard E, Manke T, Akhtar A. (2014)

MOF-associated complexes ensure stem cell identity and Xist repression.

Elife 3 doi: 10.7554/eLife.02024
Europe PMC | doi

Giorgetti L, Galupa R, Nora EP, Piolot T, Lam F, Dekker J, Tiana G, Heard E. (2014)

Predictive polymer modeling reveals coupled fluctuations in chromosome conformation and transcription

Cell 157(4) doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.025
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Martienssen RA. (2014)

Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: myths and mechanisms.

Cell 157(1):95-109. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.045
Europe PMC | doi

Gendrel AV, Attia M, Chen CJ, Diabangouaya P, Servant N, Barillot E, Heard E. (2014)

Developmental dynamics and disease potential of random monoallelic gene expression.

Dev. Cell 28(4):366-80. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2014.01.016
Europe PMC | doi

Schulz EG, Meisig J, Nakamura T, Okamoto I, Sieber A, Picard C, Borensztein M, Saitou M, Blüthgen N, Heard E. (2014)

The two active X chromosomes in female ESCs block exit from the pluripotent state by modulating the ESC signaling network.

Cell Stem Cell 14(2):203-16. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2013.11.022
Europe PMC | doi

da Rocha ST, Boeva V, Escamilla-Del-Arenal M, Ancelin K, Granier C, Matias NR, Sanulli S, Chow J, Schulz E, Picard C, Kaneko S, Helin K, Reinberg D, Stewart AF, Wutz A, Heard E, Margueron R. (2014)

Jarid2 Is Implicated in the Initial Xist-Induced Targeting of PRC2 to the Inactive X Chromosome.

Mol. Cell 53(2):301-16. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2014.01.002
Europe PMC | doi


2013

Pollex T, Piolot T, Heard E. (2013)

Live-cell imaging combined with immunofluorescence, RNA, or DNA FISH to study the nuclear dynamics and expression of the X-inactivation center.

Methods Mol. Biol. 1042:13-31. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-526-2_2
Europe PMC | doi

Giorgetti L, Servant N, Heard E. (2013)

Changes in the organization of the genome during the mammalian cell cycle.

Genome Biol. 14(12) doi: 10.1186/gb4147
Europe PMC | doi

Escamilla-Del-Arenal M, da Rocha ST, Spruijt CG, Masui O, Renaud O, Smits AH, Margueron R, Vermeulen M, Heard E. (2013)

Cdyl, a new partner of the inactive X chromosome and potential reader of H3K27me3 and H3K9me2.

Mol Cell Biol 33(24):5005-20. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00866-13
Europe PMC | doi

Seitan VC, Faure AJ, Zhan Y, McCord RP, Lajoie BR, Ing-Simmons E, Lenhard B, Giorgetti L, Heard E, Fisher AG, Flicek P, Dekker J, Merkenschlager M. (2013)

Cohesin-based chromatin interactions enable regulated gene expression within preexisting architectural compartments

Genome Res. 23(12):2066-2077. doi: 10.1101/gr.161620.113
Europe PMC | doi

Ciaudo C, Jay F, Okamoto I, Chen CJ, Sarazin A, Servant N, Barillot E, Heard E, Voinnet O. (2013)

RNAi-dependent and independent control of LINE1 accumulation and mobility in mouse embryonic stem cells.

PLoS Genet. 9(11) doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003791
Europe PMC | doi

Nora EP, Dekker J, Heard E. (2013)

Segmental folding of chromosomes: a basis for structural and regulatory chromosomal neighborhoods?

Bioessays 35(9):818-28. doi: 10.1002/bies.201300040
Europe PMC | doi

de Wit E, Bouwman BA, Zhu Y, Klous P, Splinter E, Verstegen MJ, Krijger PH, Festuccia N, Nora EP, Welling M, Heard E, Geijsen N, Poot RA, Chambers I, de Laat W. (2013)

The pluripotent genome in three dimensions is shaped around pluripotency factors.

Nature 501(7466):227-31. doi: 10.1038/nature12420
Europe PMC | doi

Chen CJ, Heard E. (2013)

Small RNAs derived from structural non-coding RNAs.

Methods 63(1):76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.05.001
Europe PMC | doi

Schulz EG, Heard E. (2013)

Role and control of X chromosome dosage in mammalian development.

Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 23(2):109-15. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2013.01.008
Europe PMC | doi

Corbel C, Diabangouaya P, Gendrel AV, Chow JC, Heard E. (2013)

Unusual chromatin status and organization of the inactive X chromosome in murine trophoblast giant cells.

Development 140(4):861-72. doi: 10.1242/dev.087429
Europe PMC | doi


2012

Pollex T, Heard E. (2012)

Recent advances in X-chromosome inactivation research.

Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 24(6):825-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2012.10.007
Europe PMC | doi

Toedling J, Servant N, Ciaudo C, Farinelli L, Voinnet O, Heard E, Barillot E. (2012)

Deep-sequencing protocols influence the results obtained in small-RNA sequencing.

PLoS ONE 7(2) doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032724
Europe PMC | doi

Chen CJ, Servant N, Toedling J, Sarazin A, Marchais A, Duvernois-Berthet E, Cognat V, Colot V, Voinnet O, Heard E, Ciaudo C, Barillot E. (2012)

ncPRO-seq: a tool for annotation and profiling of ncRNAs in sRNA-seq data.

Bioinformatics 28(23):3147-9. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts587
Europe PMC | doi

Servant N, Lajoie BR, Nora EP, Giorgetti L, Chen CJ, Heard E, Dekker J, Barillot E. (2012)

HiTC: exploration of high-throughput 'C' experiments.

Bioinformatics 28(21):2843-4. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts521
Europe PMC | doi

Gendrel AV, Apedaile A, Coker H, Termanis A, Zvetkova I, Godwin J, Tang YA, Huntley D, Montana G, Taylor S, Giannoulatou E, Heard E, Stancheva I, Brockdorff N. (2012)

Smchd1-dependent and -independent pathways determine developmental dynamics of CpG island methylation on the inactive X chromosome

Dev. Cell 23(2):265-279. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2012.06.011
Europe PMC | doi

Nora EP, Lajoie BR, Schulz EG, Giorgetti L, Okamoto I, Servant N, Piolot T, van Berkum NL, Meisig J, Sedat J, Gribnau J, Barillot E, Blüthgen N, Dekker J, Heard E. (2012)

Spatial partitioning of the regulatory landscape of the X-inactivation centre.

Nature 485(7398):381-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11049
Europe PMC | doi

Jouneau A, Ciaudo C, Sismeiro O, Brochard V, Jouneau L, Vandormael-Pournin S, Coppée JY, Zhou Q, Heard E, Antoniewski C, Cohen-Tannoudji M. (2012)

Naive and primed murine pluripotent stem cells have distinct miRNA expression profiles.

RNA 18(2):253-64. doi: 10.1261/rna.028878.111
Europe PMC | doi


2011

Gendrel AV, Heard E. (2011)

Fifty years of X-inactivation research.

Development 138(23):5049-55. doi: 10.1242/dev.068320
Europe PMC | doi

Tang F, Barbacioru C, Nordman E, Bao S, Lee C, Wang X, Tuch BB, Heard E, Lao K, Surani MA. (2011)

Deterministic and stochastic allele specific gene expression in single mouse blastomeres.

PLoS ONE 6(6) doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021208
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Turner J. (2011)

Function of the sex chromosomes in mammalian fertility.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 3(10) doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a002675
Europe PMC | doi

Escamilla-Del-Arenal M, da Rocha ST, Heard E. (2011)

Evolutionary diversity and developmental regulation of X-chromosome inactivation.

Hum. Genet. 130(2):307-27. doi: 10.1007/s00439-011-1029-2
Europe PMC | doi

Augui S, Nora EP, Heard E. (2011)

Regulation of X-chromosome inactivation by the X-inactivation centre.

Nat. Rev. Genet. 12(6):429-42. doi: 10.1038/nrg2987
Europe PMC | doi

Splinter E, de Wit E, Nora EP, Klous P, van de Werken HJ, Zhu Y, Kaaij LJ, van Ijcken W, Gribnau J, Heard E, de Laat W. (2011)

The inactive X chromosome adopts a unique three-dimensional conformation that is dependent on Xist RNA.

Genes Dev. 25(13):1371-83. doi: 10.1101/gad.633311
Europe PMC | doi

Masui O, Bonnet I, Le Baccon P, Brito I, Pollex T, Murphy N, Hupé P, Barillot E, Belmont AS, Heard E. (2011)

Live-cell chromosome dynamics and outcome of X chromosome pairing events during ES cell differentiation.

Cell 145(3):447-58. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.03.032
Europe PMC | doi

Okamoto I, Patrat C, Thépot D, Peynot N, Fauque P, Daniel N, Diabangouaya P, Wolf JP, Renard JP, Duranthon V, Heard E. (2011)

Eutherian mammals use diverse strategies to initiate X-chromosome inactivation during development.

Nature 472(7343):370-4. doi: 10.1038/nature09872
Europe PMC | doi

Schulz EG, Nora EP, Heard E. (2011)

Rnf12--a jack of all trades in X inactivation?

PLoS Genet. 7(1) doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002002
Europe PMC | doi


2010

Chow JC, Heard E. (2010)

Nuclear organization and dosage compensation.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2(11) doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a000604
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Tishkoff S, Todd JA, Vidal M, Wagner GP, Wang J, Weigel D, Young R. (2010)

Ten years of genetics and genomics: what have we achieved and where are we heading?

Nat. Rev. Genet. 11(10):723-33. doi: 10.1038/nrg2878
Europe PMC | doi

Toedling J, Ciaudo C, Voinnet O, Heard E, Barillot E. (2010)

Girafe--an R/Bioconductor package for functional exploration of aligned next-generation sequencing reads.

Bioinformatics 26(22):2902-3. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btq531
Europe PMC | doi

Sinclair P, Bian Q, Plutz M, Heard E, Belmont AS. (2010)

Dynamic plasticity of large-scale chromatin structure revealed by self-assembly of engineered chromosome regions.

J. Cell Biol. 190(5):761-76. doi: 10.1083/jcb.200912167
Europe PMC | doi

Chow JC, Ciaudo C, Fazzari MJ, Mise N, Servant N, Glass JL, Attreed M, Avner P, Wutz A, Barillot E, Greally JM, Voinnet O, Heard E. (2010)

LINE-1 activity in facultative heterochromatin formation during X chromosome inactivation

Cell 141(6):956-969. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.04.042
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E. (2010)

Epigenetic mechanisms in development and disease.

Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 21(2) doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2010.01.005
Europe PMC | doi


2009

Okamoto I, Heard E. (2009)

Lessons from comparative analysis of X-chromosome inactivation in mammals.

Chromosome Res. 17(5):659-69. doi: 10.1007/s10577-009-9057-7
Europe PMC | doi

Nora EP, Heard E. (2009)

X chromosome inactivation: when dosage counts.

Cell 139(5):865-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2009.11.009
Europe PMC | doi

Ciaudo C, Servant N, Cognat V, Sarazin A, Kieffer E, Viville S, Colot V, Barillot E, Heard E, Voinnet O. (2009)

Highly dynamic and sex-specific expression of microRNAs during early ES cell differentiation.

PLoS Genet. 5(8) doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000620
Europe PMC | doi

Marks H, Chow JC, Denissov S, Françoijs KJ, Brockdorff N, Heard E, Stunnenberg HG. (2009)

High-resolution analysis of epigenetic changes associated with X inactivation.

Genome Res. 19(8):1361-73. doi: 10.1101/gr.092643.109
Europe PMC | doi

Chow J, Heard E. (2009)

X inactivation and the complexities of silencing a sex chromosome.

Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 21(3):359-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2009.04.012
Europe PMC | doi

Oda H, Okamoto I, Murphy N, Chu J, Price SM, Shen MM, Torres-Padilla ME, Heard E, Reinberg D. (2009)

Monomethylation of histone H4-lysine 20 is involved in chromosome structure and stability and is essential for mouse development.

Mol. Cell. Biol. 29(8):2278-95. doi: 10.1128/MCB.01768-08
Europe PMC | doi

Patrat C, Okamoto I, Diabangouaya P, Vialon V, Le Baccon P, Chow J, Heard E. (2009)

Dynamic changes in paternal X-chromosome activity during imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(13):5198-203. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0810683106
Europe PMC | doi


2008

Chaumeil J, Augui S, Chow J, Heard E. (2008)

Combined Immunofluorescence, RNA FISH and DNA FISH to study chromatin changes, transcriptional activity, nuclear organization and X-chromosome inactivation.

In: R. Hancock, The Nucleus : Nuclei and Sub-nuclear components. Humana Press.

Heard E, Colot V. (2008)

Chromosome structural proteins and RNA-mediated epigenetic silencing.

Dev. Cell 14(6):813-4. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2008.05.013
Europe PMC | doi

Yang S, Kohler D, Teller K, Cremer T, Le Baccon P, Heard E, Eils R, Rohr K. (2008)

Nonrigid registration of 3-d multichannel microscopy images of cell nuclei.

IEEE Trans Image Process 17(4):493-9. doi: 10.1109/TIP.2008.918017
Europe PMC | doi

Bernstein E, Muratore-Schroeder TL, Diaz RL, Chow JC, Changolkar LN, Shabanowitz J, Heard E, Pehrson JR, Hunt DF, Allis CD. (2008)

A phosphorylated subpopulation of the histone variant macroH2A1 is excluded from the inactive X chromosome and enriched during mitosis.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(5):1533-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0711632105
Europe PMC | doi


2007

Augui S, Filion GJ, Huart S, Nora E, Guggiari M, Maresca M, Stewart AF, Heard E. (2007)

Sensing X chromosome pairs before X inactivation via a novel X-pairing region of the Xic.

Science 318(5856):1632-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1149420
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Bickmore W. (2007)

The ins and outs of gene regulation and chromosome territory organisation.

Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 19(3):311-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2007.04.016
Europe PMC | doi

Vincent-Salomon A, Ganem-Elbaz C, Manié E, Raynal V, Sastre-Garau X, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Stern MH, Heard E. (2007)

X inactive-specific transcript RNA coating and genetic instability of the X chromosome in BRCA1 breast tumors.

Cancer Res. 67(11):5134-40. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-0465
Europe PMC | doi


2006

Augui S., Heard E.. (2006)

Le rendez-vous des chromosomes X.

Med Sci (Paris)

Masui O, Heard E. (2006)

RNA and protein actors in X-chromosome inactivation.

Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 71:419-28. doi: 10.1101/sqb.2006.71.058
Europe PMC | doi

Okamoto I, Heard E. (2006)

The dynamics of imprinted X inactivation during preimplantation development in mice.

Cytogenet. Genome Res. 113(1-4):318-24. doi: 10.1159/000090848
Europe PMC | doi

Chaumeil J, Le Baccon P, Wutz A, Heard E. (2006)

A novel role for Xist RNA in the formation of a repressive nuclear compartment into which genes are recruited when silenced.

Genes Dev. 20(16):2223-37. doi: 10.1101/gad.380906
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Disteche CM. (2006)

Dosage compensation in mammals: fine-tuning the expression of the X chromosome.

Genes Dev. 20(14):1848-67. doi: 10.1101/gad.1422906
Europe PMC | doi

Bernstein E, Duncan EM, Masui O, Gil J, Heard E, Allis CD. (2006)

Mouse polycomb proteins bind differentially to methylated histone H3 and RNA and are enriched in facultative heterochromatin.

Mol. Cell. Biol. 26(7):2560-9. doi: 10.1128/MCB.26.7.2560-2569.2006
Europe PMC | doi

Bacher CP, Guggiari M, Brors B, Augui S, Clerc P, Avner P, Eils R, Heard E. (2006)

Transient colocalization of X-inactivation centres accompanies the initiation of X inactivation.

Nat. Cell Biol. 8(3):293-9. doi: 10.1038/ncb1365
Europe PMC | doi


2005

Okamoto I, Arnaud D, Le Baccon P, Otte AP, Disteche CM, Avner P, Heard E. (2005)

Evidence for de novo imprinted X-chromosome inactivation independent of meiotic inactivation in mice.

Nature 438(7066):369-373. doi: 10.1038/nature04155
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E. (2005)

Delving into the diversity of facultative heterochromatin: the epigenetics of the inactive X chromosome.

Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 15(5):482-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2005.08.009
Europe PMC | doi

Bao S, Miyoshi N, Okamoto I, Jenuwein T, Heard E, Azim Surani M. (2005)

Initiation of epigenetic reprogramming of the X chromosome in somatic nuclei transplanted to a mouse oocyte.

EMBO Rep. 6(8):748-54. doi: 10.1038/sj.embor.7400461
Europe PMC | doi

Kunath T, Arnaud D, Uy GD, Okamoto L, Chureau C, Yamanaka Y, Heard E, Gardner RL, Avner P, Rossant J. (2005)

Imprinted X-inactivation in extra-embryonic endoderm cell lines from mouse blastocysts

Development 132(7):1649-1661. doi: 10.1242/dev.01715
Europe PMC | doi


2004

Chaumeil J, Okamoto I, Heard E. (2004)

X-chromosome inactivation in mouse embryonic stem cells: analysis of histone modifications and transcriptional activity using immunofluorescence and FISH.

Meth. Enzymol. 376:405-19. doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(03)76027-3
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Chaumeil J, Masui O, Okamoto I. (2004)

Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation: an epigenetics paradigm.

Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 69:89-102. doi: 10.1101/sqb.2004.69.89
Europe PMC | doi

Rougeulle C, Chaumeil J, Sarma K, Allis CD, Reinberg D, Avner P, Heard E. (2004)

Differential histone H3 Lys-9 and Lys-27 methylation profiles on the X chromosome.

Mol. Cell. Biol. 24(12):5475-84. doi: 10.1128/MCB.24.12.5475-5484.2004
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E. (2004)

Recent advances in X-chromosome inactivation.

Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 16(3):247-255. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2004.03.005
Europe PMC | doi

Okamoto I, Otte AP, Allis CD, Reinberg D, Heard E. (2004)

Epigenetic dynamics of imprinted X inactivation during early mouse development.

Science 303(5658):644-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1092727
Europe PMC | doi


2003

Narita M, Nunez S, Heard E, Narita M, Lin AW, Hearn SA, Spector DL, Hannon GJ, Lowe SW. (2003)

Rb-mediated heterochromatin formation and silencing of E2F target genes during cellular senescence.

Cell 113(6):703-716. doi: 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00401-X
Europe PMC | doi

Xin Z, Tachibana M, Guggiari M, Heard E, Shinkai Y, Wagstaff J. (2003)

Role of histone methyltransferase G9a in CpG methylation of the Prader-Willi syndrome imprinting center.

J. Biol. Chem. 278(17):14996-5000. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M211753200
Europe PMC | doi