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Room: 209-212
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Tel: +49 6221 387-8288
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E-mail: dg-office@embl.org


  • BA, 1986, University of Cambridge, UK.
    PhD 1990, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratory, London, UK.
    Postdoctoral researcher and CNRS scientist, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Group leader and Director of Genetics and Developmental Biology Unit, Institut Curie, Paris, France.
    Professor, Collège de France, since 2012.
    Director General, EMBL, since January 2019.
    Group leader, EMBL, since January 2019.
    2019 Hansen Family Award, 2019.
    2020 elected to the Max Planck Society Senate.
    2020 Cambridge University, Doctor of Science Honoris causa.
    2020 L’Oréal-UNESCO prize for Women in Science International Award 2020.


Total: 140 publication(s)


Chaumeil J, Okamoto I, Heard E. (2004)

X-chromosome inactivation in mouse embryonic stem cells: analysis of histone modifications and transcriptional activity using immunofluorescence and FISH.

Meth. Enzymol. 376:405-19. doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(03)76027-3
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Chaumeil J, Masui O, Okamoto I. (2004)

Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation: an epigenetics paradigm.

Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 69:89-102. doi: 10.1101/sqb.2004.69.89
Europe PMC | doi

Rougeulle C, Chaumeil J, Sarma K, Allis CD, Reinberg D, Avner P, Heard E. (2004)

Differential histone H3 Lys-9 and Lys-27 methylation profiles on the X chromosome.

Mol. Cell. Biol. 24(12):5475-84. doi: 10.1128/MCB.24.12.5475-5484.2004
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E. (2004)

Recent advances in X-chromosome inactivation.

Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 16(3):247-255. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2004.03.005
Europe PMC | doi

Okamoto I, Otte AP, Allis CD, Reinberg D, Heard E. (2004)

Epigenetic dynamics of imprinted X inactivation during early mouse development.

Science 303(5658):644-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1092727
Europe PMC | doi


Narita M, Nunez S, Heard E, Narita M, Lin AW, Hearn SA, Spector DL, Hannon GJ, Lowe SW. (2003)

Rb-mediated heterochromatin formation and silencing of E2F target genes during cellular senescence.

Cell 113(6):703-716. doi: 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00401-X
Europe PMC | doi

Xin Z, Tachibana M, Guggiari M, Heard E, Shinkai Y, Wagstaff J. (2003)

Role of histone methyltransferase G9a in CpG methylation of the Prader-Willi syndrome imprinting center.

J. Biol. Chem. 278(17):14996-5000. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M211753200
Europe PMC | doi


Chaumeil J, Okamoto I, Guggiari M, Heard E. (2002)

Integrated kinetics of X chromosome inactivation in differentiating embryonic stem cells.

Cytogenet. Genome Res. 99(1-4):75-84. doi: 10.1159/000071577
Europe PMC | doi

Rougeulle C, Heard E. (2002)

Antisense RNA in imprinting: spreading silence through Air.

Trends Genet. 18(9):434-7. doi: 10.1016/S0168-9525(02)02749-X
Europe PMC | doi

Huang KC, Rao PH, Lau CC, Heard E, Ng SK, Brown C, Mok SC, Berkowitz RS, Ng SW. (2002)

Relationship of XIST expression and responses of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy.

Mol. Cancer Ther. 1(10):769-76.
Europe PMC

Boggs BA, Cheung P, Heard E, Spector DL, Chinault AC, Allis CD. (2002)

Differentially methylated forms of histone H3 show unique association patterns with inactive human X chromosomes.

Nat. Genet. 30(1):73-6. doi: 10.1038/ng787
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E. (2002)

The X-inactivation center; the XIST gene.

In: Campbell AM et al., Wiley Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine. John Wiley & Sons, Inc..doi: 10.1002/0471203076


Monier K, Heliot L, Rougeulle C, Heard E, Robert-Nicoud M, Vourc'h C, Bensimon A, Usson Y. (2001)

Improvement of FISH mapping resolution on combed DNA molecules by iterative constrained deconvolution: a quantitative study.

Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 92(1-2):59-62. doi: 10.1159/000056869
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Rougeulle C, Arnaud D, Avner P, Allis CD, Spector DL. (2001)

Methylation of histone H3 at Lys-9 is an early mark on the X chromosome during X inactivation

Cell 107(6):727-738. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(01)00598-0
Europe PMC | doi

Avner P, Heard E. (2001)

X-chromosome inactivation: Counting, choice and initiation

Nat. Rev. Genet. 2(1):59-67. doi: 10.1038/35047580
Europe PMC | doi


Heard E, Avner P. (2000)

Trans-Siberian X press report - International Symposium on X Chromosome Inactivation in Mammals, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia, 6-12 September, 1999

Paper presented at the International Symposium on X Chromosome Inactivation in Mammals, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia, 6–12 September 1999.Trends Genet. 16(2):64-65. doi: 10.1016/S0168-9525(99)01944-7
Europe PMC | doi


Debrand E, Chureau C, Arnaud D, Avner P, Heard E. (1999)

Functional analysis of the DXPas34 locus, a 3' regulator of Xist expression.

Mol. Cell. Biol. 19(12):8513-25.
Europe PMC

Heard E, Mongelard F, Arnaud D, Chureau C, Vourc'h C, Avner P. (1999)

Human XIST yeast artificial chromosome transgenes show partial X inactivation center function in mouse embryonic stem cells.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(12):6841-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.96.12.6841
Europe PMC | doi

O'Neill LP, Keohane AM, Lavender JS, McCabe V, Heard E, Avner P, Brockdorff N, Turner BM. (1999)

A developmental switch in H4 acetylation upstream of Xist plays a role in X chromosome inactivation.

EMBO J. 18(10):2897-2907. doi: 10.1093/emboj/18.10.2897
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Lovell-Badge R, Avner P. (1999)


Nat. Genet. 21(4):343-4. doi: 10.1038/7661
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Mongelard F, Arnaud D, Avner P. (1999)

Xist yeast artificial chromosome transgenes function as X-inactivation centers only in multicopy arrays and not as single copies.

Mol. Cell. Biol. 19(4):3156-66.
Europe PMC


Avner P, Prissette M, Arnaud D, Courtier B, Cecchi C, Heard E. (1998)

Molecular correlates of the murine Xce locus.

Genet. Res. 72(3):217-24. doi: 10.1017/S0016672398003516
Europe PMC | doi

Debrand E, Heard E, Avner P. (1998)

Cloning and localization of the murine Xpct gene: evidence for complex rearrangements during the evolution of the region around the Xist gene.

Genomics 48(3):296-303. doi: 10.1006/geno.1997.5173
Europe PMC | doi


Simmler MC, Heard E, Rougeulle C, Cruaud C, Weissenbach J, Avner P. (1997)

Localization and expression analysis of a novel conserved brain expressed transcript, Brx/BRX, lying within the Xic/XIC candidate region.

Mamm. Genome 8(10):760-6. doi: 10.1007/s003359900561
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Clerc P, Avner P. (1997)

X-chromosome inactivation in mammals

Annu. Rev. Genet. 31:571-610. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genet.31.1.571
Europe PMC | doi


Heard E, Kress C, Mongelard F, Courtier B, Rougeulle C, Ashworth A, Vourc'h C, Babinet C, Avner P. (1996)

Transgenic mice carrying an Xist-containing YAC.

Hum. Mol. Genet. 5(4):441-50. doi: 10.1093/hmg/5.4.441
Europe PMC | doi

Melanitou E, Simmler MC, Heard E, Rougeulle C, Avner P. (1996)

Selected methods related to the mouse as a model system.

In: Adolph KW, Methods in Molecular Genetics. Vol. 8, Human Molecular Genetics. Academic Press. pp 439-469.


Fairhead C, Heard E, Arnaud D, Avner P, Dujon B. (1995)

Insertion of unique sites into YAC arms for rapid physical analysis following YAC transfer into mammalian cells.

Nucleic Acids Res. 23(19):4011-2. doi: 10.1093/nar/23.19.4011
Europe PMC | doi

Courtier B, Heard E, Avner P. (1995)

Xce haplotypes show modified methylation in a region of the active X chromosome lying 3' to Xist.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(8):3531-3535. doi: 10.1073/pnas.92.8.3531
Europe PMC | doi


Heard E, Avner P. (1994)

Role play in X-inactivation.

Hum. Mol. Genet. 3 Spec No:1481-5. doi: 10.1093/hmg/3.suppl_1.1481
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Avner P, Rothstein R. (1994)

Creation of a deletion series of mouse YACs covering a 500 kb region around Xist.

Nucleic Acids Res. 22(10):1830-7. doi: 10.1093/nar/22.10.1830
Europe PMC | doi


Fried M, Feo S, Heard E. (1993)

Involvement of inverted duplications in the generation of gene amplification in mammalian cells.

In: Kellems RE, Gene Amplification in Mammalian Cells. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. pp 447-460.

Heard E, Simmler MC, Larin Z, Rougeulle C, Courtier B, Lehrach H, Avner P. (1993)

Physical mapping and YAC contig analysis of the region surrounding Xist on the mouse X chromosome.

Genomics 15(3):559-69. doi: 10.1006/geno.1993.1108
Europe PMC | doi

Hayashi Y, Heard E, Fried M. (1993)

A large inverted duplicated DNA region associated with an amplified oncogene is stably maintained in a YAC.

Hum. Mol. Genet. 2(2):133-8. doi: 10.1093/hmg/2.2.133
Europe PMC | doi


Fried M, Feo S, Heard E. (1991)

The role of inverted duplication in the generation of gene amplification in mammalian cells.

Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1090(2):143-55. doi: 10.1016/0167-4781(91)90095-4
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Williams SV, Sheer D, Fried M. (1991)

Gene amplification accompanied by the loss of a chromosome containing the native allele and the appearance of the amplified DNA at a new chromosomal location.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88(18):8242-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.88.18.8242
Europe PMC | doi


Heard E, Fried M. (1990)

The use of 5-azacytidine to increase cleavage of methylation sensitive rare cutting restriction enzymes sites in amplified DNA.

Nucleic Acids Res. 18(20):6147-8. doi: 10.1093/nar/18.20.6147
Europe PMC | doi


Davies B, Feo S, Heard E, Fried M. (1989)

A strategy to detect and isolate an intron-containing gene in the presence of multiple processed pseudogenes.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(17):6691-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.86.17.6691
Europe PMC | doi

Heard E, Davies B, Feo S, Fried M. (1989)

An improved method for the screening of YAC libraries.

Nucleic Acids Res. 17(14) doi: 10.1093/nar/17.14.5861
Europe PMC | doi


Augui S, Heard E. (1900)

[Inactivation of X chromosome: cells know how to count two X chromosomes].

Med Sci (Paris) 24(6-7):584-5. doi: 10.1051/medsci/20082467584
Europe PMC | doi